(Registered under Society Registration Act 21 of 1860)

Focal Theme (2019-2020)



Indian Social Science Academy and Bengaluru Central University have resolved to focus deliberations of the 43rd Indian Social Science Congress on ‘Current Science of Nature-Human-Society in India’ with a view to determining nature and extent of connection/correlation between the nationals goals of self-reliant growth, removal of poverty, hunger, disease, ignorance, illiteracy, discrimination, oppression , rapes, murders, violence, inequality and making India a truly secular Democratic Republic having strong pillars of equality ,freedom, fraternity and social justice, where all Indians irrespective of their class, caste, creed , gender and region are seen enjoying equally high order of material, social and cultural life.


Indian Parliament passed a Scientific Policy Resolution (SPR) in 1958 with a sole object of making India self-reliant on its own Science and Technology. Realizing the connection between Science, Technology and problems of poverty, hunger, disease, etc and the liberating power of science, the parliament assigned primary role to science and scientists for making Democratic Republic of India a truly democratic, prosperous,modern nation having no trace of colonial poverty, hunger, ignorance, disease, discrimination,exploitation, rich and poor divide, etc. New Universities, Institutes and Laboratories were established. Managers of Science and Technology declared India having third largest manpower in Science and Technology in the world in 1970s. It was, then, said that India was far ahead of China in Science and Technology. How is science and Technology today? Managers of Science and Technology no longer speak about it.

In 1983, the Government of India instead of Parliament issued Technology Policy Statement in lieu of Technology policy. In early 2000 the Government of India started creating new science education institutes naming Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, National Institute of Science Education and Research in different parts of India. Department of Science and Technology launched new programmes of incentivisation of science education and research between 2006-10. These were designed to attract young scientists. DST also offered fellowships to those who had migrated to USA and had done well in science there.

Democratic Republic of India converted Imperial Council of Industrial Research into Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Imperial Council of Agricultural Research into Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). It also setup Indian Council of Medical Research and several research institutes within it. Later in late 1960s and early 1970s Indian Council of Social Science Research, Indian Council of Philosophical Research and Indian Council of Historical Research were established.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) was established as the premier referral and research institute. Later on Post Graduate Medical Institutes (PGI) were established in Chandigarh, Pondicherry and Lucknow. Since then several AIIMS and PGI’s have been established all over India.

Indian Institute of Technology was setup at Kharagpur, Kanpur, Madras (now Chennai) and Bombay (now Mumbai) and later on several IITs have been set up all over India.

Three Science Academies, namely, Indian National Science Academy (INSA), National Academy of Science India (NASI) and Indian Science Academy(ISA) were established during British rule, Fourth Science Academy, Indian Academy of Social Sciences (now Indian Social Science Academy ,(ISSA) was established on August 15, 1974 in order to bring all subjects of Nature-Human-Society under one umbrella and give a new direction to Science and Technology in consonance with the democratic needs, aspirations and creative urges of people of India. Also, Agricultural Science Academy, Engineering Science Academy and Medical Science Academy were established in 1980’s.

Democratic Republic of India setup several educational commissions (Mudaliar Commission, , Kothari Commission, etc.) with a view to replacing British colonial education system by a new democratic education system in tune with new democratic aspirations of peoples of India. “Education for all”, “Free Universal Education” and “Health for All” became the new slogans.

Indian Science Congress Association was established in 1914 by the Indian scientists in British India who also established Association for Cultivation of Science. Indian Academy of Social Science, (now Indian Social Science Academy) began organizing Indian Social Science Congress in 1976. It was a new milestone in the ream of science as it brought all subjects of science of Nature-Human society together and termed science as social and indivisible.It was a unique endeavour to break the current divisions in science and promote the true social nature of scientific knowledge called science of Nature-Human society. Also, there are national, regional and local subject associations of all subjects including languages. Hindi Sahitya Akademi and Lalit Kala Academy too were established.

Jamshedji Tata setup Indian Institiute of Science at Banglore (now Bengaluru). Later on he also setup Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Tata Institute of Social Science at Bombay (now Mumbai). Government of India established Atomic Research Centre (now Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) after independence. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) too was established.

NCERT was established for improving education in Schools. Later each state established State Council of Education, Research and Training (SCERT).

A new Commission called University Grants Commission (UGC) was established by the Parliament.UGC was set up to coordinate and maintain standards in higher education. Later on the government of India also set up All India Council of Technical Education, National Council of Teachers Education, Council of Architecture, Pharmacy Council, Bar Council and so on. These attempted to coordinate,promote and regulate education in their respective areas.

Government of India established Indian Institute of Advanced Study at Shimla. UGC started establishing Advanced or special Study Centres in good University departments in late 1970s. It also established special institutes for interdisciplinary research in selected universities and inter-university centers in Astrophysicsand Astronomy, Nuclear Science Centre, Consortium of education Communication, Information and library network, and National Assessment and Accreditation Council. All these attempted to promote research in their respective areas.

A process of creating elite science education and Research Institutes began in late 1980’s under the overall leadership of Prof. C.N.R Rao, who has been later on confrerred ‘Bharat Ratna’ award for it. The new institutes were named ‘ National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) or Institute of Science Education Research (ISER). Science Olmpiyad was added to it. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education emerged under TFIR in 1980’s.

Later teacherless education,namely, Open education, Distance Education, Open University, Adult Education, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, etc., were added. A programme called “Operation Black Board” was launched on war footing. Parliament made education the fundamental rights through an Act, though till date it has not been implemented. The World Bank entered Indian Education in early 1980s, although secretely.

With the launching of Structural AdjustmentProgrammes(SAP) called Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation (LPG) in 1991, scene in education changed. Birla-Ambani (the top Indian Industrialists) Report appeared as the new guideline to education in India. Doors of education were wide opened for private players and the corporate world. “Policy of Contract Teaching” on the pattern of “Policy of Contract Labour” in industries and government and Contract Farming in Agriculture was introduced. Thus, began the process of teacherless education and research in Indian Universities, schools, Colleges and Institutions. Coaching Institutions and Online institutions mushroomed all over India, rendering Schools, Colleges and Universities thus redundant.

A process of a making education a saleable commodity, was set into motion by opening the floodgates of privatization. Now corporate capital regulates education.According to Higher Education Survey Report 2017, India has 864 Universities and 40,026 Colleges. Out of 864 universities,330 are Private Universities. Standalone institutions of national importance including number of IITs and AIIMS has multiplied and reached to 100.

It ought to be noted that several patriotic Indians had set up new Universities and Schools in British India. Nanabhai Bhatt Established LokShiksha (Peoples Education) in Amla village in Bhavnagar District of Gujarat. Later he established Lok Gram BharatiVidyapith at Sanosora. Rabindranath Tagore had created wonderful university called Visva -Bharati at Santiniketan in West Bengal. PanditMadan Mohan Malaviya established Kashi Hindu University at Banaras. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan established Aligarh Muslim University at Aligarh. JamiaMilliaIslamia in Delhi came later. Mahatma Gandhi had established GujaratVidyapith in 1918 at Ahmadabad. All these symbolized quest for new democratic education system in opposition to the colonial British Education System.

Question arises: What is status of Science and Technology (S&T) in India today? Is India now self-reliant in S &T? Is Indian S&T superior to European, American and Chinese Science? What is the quality of science Of Nature Human-society in India today? Is science education and research good in India? Is Indian S &T superior or equal to China, USA and Europe? If not, what is wrong with it? What about generation and utilization of scientific manpower? Is the environment for teaching and research in Universities/College/Research Institutes more congenial as compared to 1965-1970. All these and many more questions demand a dispassionate critical and objective appraisal of current science and technology in Democratic Republic of India.-

Did India choose a right path just to follow what is happening in western part of world? What about millions of people who are still working hard to meet two meals, shelter, cloth, education, health and dignity of self. Has our scientific endeavor attempted to solve the problems poverty? Has our science and technology transformed the means of production and distribution in rural areas,? Has our social science addressed the problems through democratic governance? Has our body politics ensured dignified life to women and downtrodden? Is law and order protecting life of weaker sections?

Indian Social Science Academy and Bengaluru Central University , therefore, propose to initiate a process of critical appraisal of current science of Nature-Human-Society in India during its 43rd Indian Social Science Congress.


Question arises: What is the necessity for such a massive exercise?

Indian Social Science Academy has published many books based on deliberations at Indian Social Science Congress. Some of these are: Impact of Science and Technology, Social Perspective of Development of Science, Generation and Utilization of Indigenous Science and Technology, Microprocessors and Information Technology, Emerging Interfaces of Social Science and Public Policy In India, etc. What appears is alarming,

  1. Quality of research in all subjects of science and technology is declining day by day, It is also devoid of power solving the problems of people at large. It is more focused on verifying/initiating what is being done in developed part of world.
  2. School and University Education systems are in deep crisis. Almost all government schools and Universities are now without required teachers and minded staff.
  3. Critical mass of creative scientists necessary for the country of India is now very low.
  4. Thousands of Ph.D holders are either unemployed or working as a contract teachers. Some are willing to work as fourth grade employee, which too is not available.
  5. UGC supported Advanced Study Centres had either been closed or are on the verge of closure.UGC too is faced with closure. The great universities like Banaras Hindu University and Visva-Bharati are dying.
  6. Almost all Indian Industries continue depending on foreign science and technology even after 70 years of India’s independence. Programmes of digitization of India and ‘Make in India’ are based on imported technology. Bullet train, passenger and fighter planes are imported. Despite huge establishment of DRDO, Indian Defence System continues depending on imported weapons heavily. Even small service products like trolleys at all airports are imported. Though Indian people make all kinds of mats, yet mats for yoga are imported. Even Statues have to be made by foreign sculptures. Crores of youth holding B.Tech, M.Tech degrees are on the road. Parliament seems to be sleeping at its 1958 resolution. If Science and Technology in India has grown as expected, how to explain that only 101billionaires control over 15% of GDP and bottom 50% have only 5% of GDP of Indiaand Indian Poverty?
  7. A new virus of appointment of Vice-Chancellors and Teachers on payment has emerged.


Tentative objectives of the proposed deliberations on “Current Science of Nature-Human-Soceity in India” are as follows:

  • 0401- To undertake a critical appraisal of researches in all subjects of Science of Nature-Human Society in India.
  • 0402- To assess the quality of researches in all subjects of Science in India.
  • 0403- To determine the new theory and methods discovered by Indian Scientists.
  • 0404- To assess the funding of research in all subjects of science and technology.
  • 0405- To evaluate the quality of science education in Schools, Colleges and Research Institutes.
  • 0406- To investigate novelty and creativity of research in CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, ICSSA, ICPR, ISER, NISER, AIIMS, PGIs, Medical Universities/Institutes.
  • 0407- To understand the nature and quality of World Science today.
  • 0408- To investigate the Congeniality of environment for education and research in Indian Universities and Institutes/Laboratories.
  • 0409- To determine the impact of alien language on creative education and research.
  • 0410- To find out the status of utilization of new scientific and technological knowledge generated by Indian Scientist and Technologists.
  • 0411- To assess the contributions of IITs/NIITs/Engineering Colleges to discovery of new technology relevant to the developmental needs of India and its peoples.
  • 0412-To examine indigenous S &T base of Indian Industries.
  • 0413- To assess the nature of placement of Ph.D. holders as well as M.TECH/B.TECH/MBA holders.
  • 0414-To investigate the bond between scientists/technologists and the people.
  • 0415-To explore the connection between growth of S&T and growth of poverty, unemployment, diseases, etc
  • 0416- To suggest a way out.
  • 0417-Any other

0500 Major Themes

Following major themes of the focal theme ‘Current Science of Nature-Human-Society’ are suggested for consideration:

  1. Science of Nature-Human-Society in British India
  2. Science and Technology Policy vis-à-vis National Goals of Democratic Republic of India
  3. Growth of Universities, Research Institutes, IITs, IIITs, AIIMS and National Laboratories/ R&D Organizations in India, Advanced Study Centres, etc.
  4. Nature of democratic Congenial Environmental for Research and Development.
  5. Discovery of New Science of Nature-Human-and Society in Democratic Republic of India
  6. General and utilization of Indigenous Technology
  7. Current Status of Science of Nature-Human-Society in India
  8. Indigenous Science, Technology and self-reliant Growth
  9. Contribution of Indigenous Science and Technology to liberation of India from Hunger, diseases, poverty, unemployment, etc
  10. Connections between Indigenous Science and Technology and National Policies
  11. Impact of ‘Brain-Drain’ on growth of Indigenous Science and Technology
  12. Alienation of Science , Scientists and technology from Nature, Society and People
  13. Impact of English Education on growth of indigenous Science of Nature-Human-Society
  14. Science of Real World vs Science of virtual world
  15. Contribution of Science to resolution of conflicts and violence
  16. Science communication and Scientific Temperament
  17. Indigenous S&T Industry and Agriculture
  18. Utilization of creative energy of young Scientists
  19. Science Academies, Science Associations and Indigenous Science and Technology
  20. Science education in Schools, Colleges and Universities
  21. What ails science in India?
  22. Results of Politicizations of Science
  23. India’s Dependence on imported Technology
  24. Social Imperatives of Science
  25. Any other


There are 28 Subject Research Committees and 21 interdisciplinary Thematic Panels in the Indian Social Science Congress. Each subject Research Committee, therefore, is expected to identify specific and salient problems on which research has been done during last 5 decades and get all the researches reviewed critically. Each Research Committee and Thematic Panel, can bring out a volume on critical reviews of researches in its domain. Translation of volumes can be published in all Indian Languages. Some of the major sub-themes for each of the Research Committee are suggested below tentatively. The same are subject to modification in the process of discussions on the focal themes. All the chairpersons of Research Committees and Thematic Panels are expected to play major role in it:

0100: Agriculture Science Research Committee

0101: Current Research and Theory in Agriculture Science

0102:Impact of use of chemical, fertilizers, pesticides, etc on fertilityof soil and grains/vegetables/ plants

0103:Impact of Mechanization on Agriculture

0104:Impact of Agribusiness Industry on Agriculture

0105:Impact of High Yielding Seeds on Agriculture

0106: GM crops

0107:Equation between agriculture and Industry

0108:Agricultural Economy and Market Economy

0109: Agrarian crisis and farmer’s suicides

0110:Agriculture Policy

0111:ICAR Research Institutes, Agricultural University and new knowledge of Agriculture

0112: Any Other


0201:Current Research and Theory in Anthropology
0202: Physical Anthropology
0203: Social Anthropology
0204: Cultural Anthropology
0205: Indigenous/Tribal People of India
0206: Tribal Medicine
0207: Tribal Science and Technology
0208: Ethnography
0209:Anthropological Methods and Theories
0210: Any other


0301: Current Research and Theory in History
0302:Current Research in Archaeology
0303:Current Research in the History of Ancient, Medieval and Modern Era
0304: Preservation of heritage and Archaeological Sites
0305: Cultural History
0306: History of Science and Technology
0307: History of Medical Science
0308: Economic History
0309: Social History
0310: Colonial History
0311: Historiography

0400: Biological or Life Science Research Committee

0401:Current Research and Theory in Biology
0404:Plant Biology
0405:Emergence and Evolution of Life
0407Molecular Biology
0408:Biological System
0409:Biological Methods and Theories
0411:Any other

0500: Biotechnology Research Committee

0501: Current Research and Theory in Biotechnology
0502: Nano technology
0502:Biotechnology of Plants and Agriculture
0503: Biotechnology of Medicine
0504:Methods and Theory
0505: History of Biotechnology

0600: Chemical Science Research Committee

0601:Current Research and Theory in Chemical Science
0602:Physical Chemical Science
0603: Organic Chemical Science
0604: Bio-Chemical Science
0605: Solid and Stimulate Change

0700: Commerce Research Committee

0701:Current Research and Theory in Commerce

0800: Communication And Journalism Research Committee

0801: Current Research and Theory in Communication and Journalism

0900: Computer Science Research Committee

0901: Current Research and Theory in Computer Science

1000: Earth Science (Oceanic Sc, Marine Sc. , Atmospheric Science etc) And Planetary Science Research Committee

1001: Current Research and Theory in Earth Science

1100: Ecological And Environmental Science Research Committee

1101:Current Research and Theory in Ecology and Environment Science

1200: Economics Research Committee

1201:Current Research and Theory in Economics
1202: Macro Economics
1203: Micro Economics
1204: Agriculture Economics
1205: Labour Economics
1206: Environmental Economics
1207: Gender Economics
1208: International Economics
1209: Industrial Economics
1210: Welfare Economics
1211: Economic History and Thought

1300: Education Research Committee

1301:Current Research and Theory in Education

1400: Engineering Science Research Committee

1401:Current Research and Theory in Engineering and Technology

1500: Geography Research Committee

1501:Current Research and Theory in Geography

1600: Home Science Research Committee

1601:Current Research and Theory in Home Science

1700: International Relations Studies & Defence Strategic Studies Research Committee

1701: Current Research and Theory in International Relation Studies & Defence Strategic

1800: Juridical Science Research Committee

1801: Current Research and Theory in Juridical Science

1900: Linguistics Research Committee

1901: Current Research and Theory in Linguistics

2000: Management Science Research Committee

2001: Current Research and Theory in Management Science

2100: Mathematical and Statistical Science Research Committee

2101: Current Research and Theory in Mathematical and Statistical

2200: Medical and Health Science Research Committee

2201: Current Research and Theory in Medical and Health

2300: Philosophy Research Committee

2301: Current Research and Theory in Philosophy

2400: Physical Science Research Committee

2401: Current Research and Theory in Physical Science

2500: Political Science Research Committee

2501: Current Research and Theory in Political Science
2502: State
2504:Political Party
2505: Parliament

2600: Psychology Research Committee

2601: Current Research and Theory in Psychology
2602: Psycho Physics
2603: Physiological/Biological Psychology
2604: Social Psychology
2605:Industrial Psychology
2606:Psycho pathology
2607: Clinical Psycho
2608:Motivational Processes
2609:Cognitive Processes
2610:Personality Theory
2611:Methods and Theory
2613:Any other

2700: Social Work Research Committee

2701:Current Research and Theory in Social Work

2800: Sociology Research Committee

2801: Current Research and Theory in Sociology
2802:Social System Research
2803:Social of Knowledge


0100: Conflicts, War, Peace and Social Security Thematic Panel
0200: Democracy and Human Rights Thematic Panel
0300: Ecological and Environmental Protection Movements Thematic Panel
0400: Ethics of Science and Society Thematic Panel
0500: Global Warming and Climate Change Thematic Panel
0600: History and Philosophy of Science Thematic Panel
0700: Information Technology, Mass Media and Culture Thematic Panel
0800: Labour in Organized and Unorganized Sectors Thematic Panel
0900: Nation, States and Emerging Challenges Thematic Panel
1000: Natural Resources, Bio-diversity and Geographic Information System Thematic Panel
1100: Patent Laws and Intellectual Property Rights Thematic Panel
1200: Peasants , Livelihood and Land-use Thematic Panel
1300: Peoples (Dalit, Tribes, Women, Peasants, etc) Struggles and Movements For Equitable Thematic Panel
1400: Peoples Health and Quality of Life Thematic Panel
1500: Political Economy of India Thematic Panel
1600: Population, Poverty and Migration Thematic Panel
1700: Rural Technology, Social Organizations and Rural Development Thematic Panel
1800: Science Communication and Science Popularization Thematic Panel
1900: Science Technology and Social Development Thematic Panel
2000: Social Processes, Social Structures and Social Alienation Thematic Panel
2100: Unity of Science/Science of Nature-Humans-Society Thematic Panel


It is proposed to organize as many national/international Seminars/Symposia/Workshops/Colloquia on the themes of greater relevance to science, technology and society as possible. Themes for all subjects Research Committees will be decided through collective discussion. All are invited to put forward their suggestions , a few suggestions are mentioned below:

0701: Special National Symposium

As per proposal of the Bengaluru Central University it is proposed to organize a special National Symposium on ‘ Social Imperatives of Science’ during the XLIII Indian Social Science Congress. It’s details will be worked out by Bengaluru Central University.


Following themes are suggested for International Symposia/Seminars as:

  1. World Science Today
  2. World Health Science and World Peoples Health Today
  3. World Science and Liberation of World from Poverty, Hunger, Diseases and War
  4. Any other


Members are welcome to put forward these for National Seminars/Symposia/Workshops/Colloquia


Task is gigantic. Resources are meager. And time is short. Yet it has to be done. How? Multi-prong approach involving all Universities, Institutes/ Laboratories/Science Academies and all scientists is the only viable approach. Its details will have to be worked out.

A National Academic Advisory Committee comprising eminent scientists and technologists need to be constituted soon. Each of the 22 Research committees and 21 Interdisplanery/ thematic panels have to be carefully constituted fast. A committee for organization of International Symposia/Seminars has to be set up.